Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Chola Kingdom

Chola dynasty is one of the most prominent dynasty in South India during the ancient period.

Almost the entire Tamil region was under the control of Cholas.

Their kingdom Cholamandalam lay to the North-East of the Pandyas between the Pennar and the Vettar rivers.

Sangam Literature was the important source to know about the Cholas.

The references about Chodas or Cholas are mentioned in II and XIII Rock edicts of Mauryan king Ashoka.

The history of Cholas can be divided into four divisions. They are:

1. Cholas of Sangam age/ Cholas of Cholamandalam (Coromandal coast).

2. The interval between the close of Sangam Age and rise of Vijayalaya line.

3. Cholas from 850 AD to ad 1267 AD. They are called Imperial Cholas of Tanjore(Vijayalaya Line).

4. Chalukya-Chola line of Kulottunga I.

The greatest among the Cholas of the Sangam Age was Karikala Chola. He extended the Chola territory. He built a new capital city called Kaveripattanam. or Puhar. But his successors were inefficient. Hence Cholas were reduced to an insignificant position due to the expansion of the Cheras and the Pandyas.

Cholas power was revived by Vijayalaya after the decline of Pallavas. They are called imperial Cholas. Adhirajendra was the last ruler of vijayalaya line of Cholas. After his death Vijayalaya line of Cholas had ended. The capital of Imperial Cholas was Tanjore.

Kulottunaga I was the first ruler of Chalukya-Chola line. He ruled from 1070-1120 AD. Kulottunga III who ruled between 1178-1216 AD was the last ruler.