Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning


Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Sangam Age

The land between the river Tungabhadra and Kanyakumari is called Tamiladesa or Dravidadesa or Dakshinadesa.

The ancient Tamil Kingdoms of Cholas, Pandyas and Cheras were referred in Ashokan inscriptions and Hathigumpha inscription of Kalinga king Kharavela.

The writings of Megastanese also referred these kingdoms.

The first, second and the third centuries A.D were referred as Sangam Age in the Tamil History.

Sangam(Kudal) means assembly of scholars and poets at Madurai.

The literature produced by the members of the assembly is called Sangam Literature.

The history of ancient Tamil kingdoms i.e. Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas came to know from Sangam Literature.

The land of three kingdoms (Chola, Chera and Pandya) is called as Tamilakkam in Tamil Literature.

Tamil Literature was patronized by all the kings of Sangam Age.

Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are the two great works of Sangam Literature.

Silappadikaram was written by Ilango Adigal.

The life of Kannagi(a great woman known for her chastity) is known from Silappadikaram.

Sattanar, a buddhist, was the author of Manimekalai.

As per traditional accounts three Sangams were held.

The first Sangam was held to the south of Madurai under the patronage of Makeerthy, the Pandyan king. Agastya was the president of first sangam.

The second Sangam was held in Kapadapuram, second capital of the Pandyas.

The third Sangam was held in Madurai. Nakkirar was the president of third Sangam.

For supremacy over Tamilakkam frequent wars took place between the three(chola, chera and pandya) kingdoms.

Talkoppiam, a work on grammar, was composed by Tolkappiar in the second sangam.

Tiruttakkadevara, a Jain, was the author of Sivaka Chintamani.

Nakkirar was the author of Tirumurukatuppadai.

Aryan religious customs, caste system and Sanskrit words entered into Tamil as a result of contacts with them.

Trade relations exists between Tamilakkam and Roman empire during the Sangam Age.