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Alauddin Khilji

Alauddin Khilji was the most powerful ruler among the Delhi Sultans. He succeeded Jalaluddin Khilji. He ascended the throne of Delhi in 1296 A.D. and ruled upto 1316 A.D. Alauddin Khilji successfully defended his empire from the invasions of Mongols. He defeated Mongols in the battles of Jalandhar, Kili, Amroha and Ravi.

Alauddin Khilji invaded on Gujarat in 1299 A.D. He sent his generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan against Gujarat. The ruler of Gujarat Karan fled with his daughter Devaladevi. Kamala Devi wife of Karan was seized by Alauddin Khiljis General. But on the way to Delhi she was released by Devda Rajput of Jhalore and Karan's General. But she was died due wound while escaping. Gujarat was annexed to the empire.

Alauddin Khilji invaded Ranathambor in 1301 A.D. Hamvir Dev was its ruler. Jalaluddin Khilji invaded Ranathambor in 1290 but he was repulsed. Alauddin Khilji got victory in the battle and captured the fort. Hamvirdev fought unto death.

Mewar was the most powerful kingodm among the Rajput kingdoms. Its capital was Chittor. The ruler of Mewar was Ratan Singh. Alauddin Khilji heard the beauty of Rani Padmini, wife of Ratan Sing. In 1303 A.D. Alauddin Khilji invaded on Chittor and seized the fort. Rajputs were defeated in the fierce battle and Alauddin got victory. But rajput women along with Rani Padmini committed suicide(Jauhar) by jumping into flames. The forts of Mandu, Dhara, Ujjain were also occupied by Alauddin Khilji. He invaded against Ramchandradeva of Yadava dynasty. Ramachandradeva was defeated and agreed to pay tribute. Malik Kafur who led southern invasions of Alauddin Khilji took the advantage of rivalry between Sundara Pandya and Virapandya of Madhurai and supported Sundara Pandya and got victory over Madhrai. In 1312 Sankaradeva of Devagir who denied to pay the tribute, was killed and Devagiri was annexed to Delhi Sultanate.

Alauddin Khilji reduced the influence of Ulemas. He did not give any importance to Calipha. He taxed Hindus heavily. He gave up the Mukti system of military recruitment. He abolished the Jagirdari system. He introduced the practice of branding of horses and maitained the descriptive rolls of soldiers. Among all the reforms introduced by the Alauddin Khilji Market Reforms were very famous. To enabele the soldiers to live on fixed pay he controlled market and regulated prices. He established a market called Sarai Adil and appointed officers called Diwan-i-Riyast and Shahana-i-Mandi to supervise the market reforms. Alauddin Khilji built a new capital called Siri.

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