Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Balban

Balban ascended the Delhi throne in 1266 A.D. after Nasir-ud-din. He was a slave. He was bought by Iltutmish from the slave dealer. He had the title of Ulugh Khan(Powerful Lord) due to his services against Mongols. The Sultan Nazir-ud-din made him as Chief Minister and gave him his daughter in marriage and practically left all the authority in his hands. He was greatest among the sultans of Slave dynasty. He elevated from the status of Malik to Khan and Khan to Sultan.

Balban suppressed Khokas in Punjab. He invaded against the Rohilkhand and brutally killed all the elder males and women and children were made as his slaves. He punished provincial governors severely when they revolt against him. Tugril Khan, Governor of Bengal was severely punished by him when he declared independence and revolted against him. Balban sent Amir Khan to supress Tugril Khan. But Amir Khan was defeated. Later Amir Khan was put to death. Balban personally led forces against Tugril Khan along with his son Bughra Khan. Tugril Khan ran into forests but he was caught and beheaded. Bughra Khan was appointed as Governor of Bengal.

Balban kept chihalgani under control. He severely punished the members of chihalgani. He appointed spies to inform about their activites. He had taken the title of Jilli Illah. He inscribed the name of the Calipha on the coins. He introduced Persian traditions of Sijda and Paibos. Sijda means greeting the kissing the feet or throne of sultan. Mongol invasions were frequent during the period of Balban. He took various measures to protect his kingdom from the Mongol invasions. He strengthened the army and repaired the old forts and put them under the control of trusted military officers. He appointed his eldest son Muhammad as incharge of border forts. Muhammad was died while fighting with Mongols. Balban was shocked with the death of his son and died in 1287.