Indian History

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Muhammad Bin Tughluq

Muhammad Bin Tughluq succeeded his father Ghias-Ud-din Tughluq. He ascended the Delhi throne in 1325 A.D and ruled upto 1351 A.D. He was a learned man and had a number of good qualities. He was a versatile genius. He had knowledge of many languages such as persian, Turkey, Arabic and Sanskrit. He was a scholar in Mathematics, Philosophy, Medical Sciences and Physics. His character was a mixture of contradictory qualities. But he was called as mad Tughluq in the history due to the failure of his methods and innovations in administration. He was unpopular due to his administrative reforms. Some of the historians described his as a mentally imbalanced where as some praised for his efficiency. According to Lanepool Muhammad Bin Tughluq had a specific character not found in anybody in Delhi Sultanate and in the Medieval History.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq increased land tax in the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region to improve the financial position of the state. He ordered to collect tax without fail. But most of the farmers were not able to pay the tax due to drought conditions and abandoned their lands. Farmers went away into the forests leaving the agriculture. Later Muhammad Bin Tughluq realized the mistake and tried to remedy them by digging wells and advancing loans. He made efficient the department of Agriculture.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq thought that it would be appropriate to have the capital in the middle of kingdom. Hence he shifted the capital from Delhi to Daultabad in 1327. He renamed Devagiri as Daultabad There were two reasons for the transfer of capital by Muhammad Bin Tughluq. One was Muhammad desire to have centrally located capital and the fear of raids of Mongols. But he faced a number of problems due to shifting of capital to Daultabad. . He ordered the Delhi people to go to the new capital along with their belongings. Even the blind were forced to migrate to new capital. People faced number of problems during their long journey to Devagiri. Some of the people died in the journey. Later Sultan realized that his plan was failure and transferred back the capital to Delhi.. Hence he again ordered the people to go back to Delhi. The scheme of transfer of capital caused heavy financial loss to the treasury.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq introduced token currency. He issued large quantities of Copper coins but he failed to prevent forgery. Hence the value of coins was felldown. Traders refused to take Copper coins and demanded Gold coins. Later sultan realized that his scheme was failure and withdrew his new coins.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq loved Islam but he was tolerant towards other religions. He performed Hindu festivals of Holi and Diwali in his court. He employed the Hindus in posts of High category. He invited the scholars of Jaina and Hindu religion to his court and conducted religious discussions. He never distinguished the people on the basis of religion. He prohibited Sati.

Muhammad Bin Tughluq empire streched a vast area from Himalayas to Madhurai in the south. He invaded against Khorasan and China in 1327 A.D. But he was unsuccessful. He conquered Nagarkot in Punjab. He pacify the Mongols by offering presents to them. During the period of Muhammad Bin Tughluq two independent kingdoms called Vijayanagara kingdom in 1336 and Bahmani kingdom in 1317 were established in the south. The ruler of Sind and Multan Mahram Aiba declared independence. Kapayanayaka in Andhradesa occupied Orugal and declared independence. Malabar and Bengal also became independent.

He laid the foundation for not only downfall of Tughluq dynaty but also the Delhi Sultanate. Muhammad Bin Tughluq was died in 1351 A.D. With his death the king was freed from the people and they from the king as obsered by Badauni.