Ancient

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Palas

The Pala dynasty ruled Bihar and Bengal. The period of reign was 760-1142 A.D.

Gopala was the founder of this dynasty. He ruled from 750 to 770 A.D. He was elected by the people.

He was a pious Buddhist and founded a great university at Uddandapura near Nalanda. This city became the capital of his successors.

The greatest ruler among the Pala rulers was Dharmapala. He was the son and successor of Gopala.

He ruled from 770 to 810 A.D. He had the title of Uttarapatha Swamin. His period was the most glorious period in the history of Bengal.

He united Bengal and Bihar. During his period the kingdom extended from the Brahmaputra to Benares.

He made the rulers of Punjab, Afghanistan and Northern Rajputana acknowledge his sovereignty.

He was a great Buddhist and assumed the title of Paramasangata.

He founded the famous monastery and university of Vikramasila. He ruled Kanauj for a while.

His son Devapala succeeded him. He ruled from 810 to 850 AD.

He fought successfully against Gurjaras, Kambhojas and Rashtrakutas and conquered Orissa and Assam.

He was also a Buddhist. He rebuilt the monastery at Nalanda and the great temple at Bodh Gaya.

The pala ruler Mahipala I was defeated by Rajendra Chola. The famous poet Rajasekhara was in the court of Mahipala.

The Pala dynasty was responsible for a marked progress in literature, sculpture, painting and other arts in Bengal and Bihar.

They continued to rule a small territory till 1197 AD.

The commander of Muhammad Ghori, Muhammad Bin Baktiyar occupied Bihar and Bengal.

Medieval

Muslim Invasions
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Modern

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