Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning


Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Sikhs-Ranjit Singh

Ranjit Singh was born in 1780. His ambition was to built a strong Sikh kingdom. He destroyed the Afghan supremacy over Punjab. He had the title of 'Raja'. In 1806 he crossed Sutlez river with large army and brought Patiala under his control. To conclude a peace treaty with Ranjit Singh, the Governor General Lord Minto sent Metcalfe to negotiate with him. As a result the treaty of Amritsar was concluded in April 1809. He occupied Wandi, Jeera, Kangra, Attock, Multan and Kashmir. The rulers of Ambala, Kaithal, and Kalsia agreed to be as his feudatories. He was died on 27th June, 1839.

Ranjit Singh was good administrator. He divided the kingdom into four provinces. They are Lahore, Multan, Kashmir and Peshawar. The head of the province was called Wazir. The provinces were divided in parganas. Kadar was the head of Pargana. The Parganas were again divided into Taluqs. The Taluq consisted 100-150 villages. Panchayats looked after village administration and also settled disputes. The special officers appointed to try the cases were called 'Adalats'.

He maintained powerful army. It consisted three categories:

1. Fauz-i-Am. It was standing army.

2. Fauz-i-Khas. It was special army.

3. Fauz-i-Bekahwayid. It was unorganized army.