Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

Mcqs

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Provinces-Sarkars-Parganas

There are two views about the provincial administration during the period of Sher Shah.

In the opinion of Qanungo, Sarkar was the highest unit of the administration.

In the opinion of Dr.Saran, Sarkar was not the highest division of administration and the provinces were existed even before akbar.

Provinces were divided into sarkars.

Munsif-i-munsifan and shiqdar-i-shiqdaran were the two important officials of Sarkars.

Shiqdar-i-shiqdaran was responsible for maintaining law and order.

He had to supervise the shiqdars of Parganas.

Munsif-i-munsifan was a judge and tried civil cases and had the power to supervise Amins.

The Sarkars were again divided into Parganas.

Munsiff, Shiqdar, Amin were the important officers of the Parganas.

Chaudari, Patwari and Muqaddam were the intermediaries between the peoepe and the Government.

Maintaing soldiers, assisting in the collection of royal dues, presiding over courts dealing with criminal cases were the duties of shiqdar.

Amin had the responsibility of revenue administration and trying civil and revenue cases. The treasurer of Pargana was Fotahdar.