Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Administration

The administration of Vijayanagara empire was based on the traditional and centralised monarchy. The monarchy was hereditory except in emergencies. Sri Krishna Devaraya was not only a great warrior but also a good administrator. He took the help of his minister Saluva Timmarusu, Known as Appaji, in reorganizing the administrative system. The chief adviser to the king was Prime Minister. Council of Ministers assisted the king in administration.The Vijayanagara Empire was divided into provinces or state. The provinces were divided into Nadus or Kottams. Tha Nadus were again divided into groups of villages. The lowest unit of administration was village. The village affairs were managed through the officers called Ayagars. The king was the apex of the whole system. He was the highest court of appeal. he was assisted by ministers and officers. Punishments for criminal offences were severe.

The army consisted Infantry, Cavalry and elephantry. provincial governors and naiks maintained army and supplied to the king at the time of war. A part of the army was also at the disposal of the king. The army used cannons. There was efficient and well organized police system and espionage system.

The main occupation of the people was agriculture. Land revenue was the main source of income for the state. It was `1/3 of the total produce. Irrigantion facilities were provided for agriculture by digging tanks and canals. A big tank was constructed at Nagulapuram. Land was classified and measured and then tax was fixed. House tax, professional tax was also inforce and the whole tax burden was heavy. Vijayanagara empire had trade relations with Burma, Malaya, China, Arabia, Egypt, Iran etc.

The society was organized based on the caste. People were rich and prosperous. Women were respected in the society. Sati and Polygamy were prevalent. Women were educated and trained in fighting. Women scholars were patronized by the court.

The Vijayanagara rulers patronized Hinduism. Their main was the protection of Hinduism. Saivism and Vaishnavism were popular. From the time of Saluva kings Veera Saivism becaome more popular. During the period of Vijayanagara Empire Hinduism got new life in South India. The rulers patronized Telugu, Kannada, Tamil and Sanskrit languages.

The rulers built temples such as Vittala Swami temple, Hazara Ramaswami temple etc. Rangamantapan and Padma Mahal were the famous buildings of this period. The foreigners who visited Vijayanagara were Abdul Razzak, Nuniz, Nicolo Conte, Paes etc.