Indian History

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Dual Government

Dual Government means double system of administration.

The system of Dual Government was introduced in Bengal by Robert Clive of British East India Company.

This system remained in practice during the period from 1765 to 1772.

The system was very advantageous for the company as it had power without responsibility.

Under this system, the administration of Bengal was divided into Nizamat and Diwani.

Diwani being the right to collect revenue was given to East India Company and Nizamat(administrative responsibility) was entrusted to Bengal Nawab.

Under this system, though the administration theoretically divided between the Company and the Nawab, the whole power was actually in the hands of the Company.

The Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II granted the Diwani of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa to the East India Company in 1765.

In 1769 English supervisors(collectors) were appointed to control the native revenue officers.

Clive appointed deputy diwans i.e Mohammad Raza Khan for Bengal and Raja Shitab Roy for Bihar, who were responsible to collect Diwani.

The Nawabs, who were deprived of any real power in 1765, were merely puppets in the hands of the British.

The Dual system of Government was abolished by Warren Hastings in 1772 and Bengal was brought under direct control of the British.

The Nawabs remained as the mere pensioners of the East India Company.