Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Warren Hastings-Judicial Reforms

Warren Hastings-Judicial Reforms

Warren Hastings formulated Judicial Plan of 1772. It contained 37 regulations about civil and criminal laws. The Diwani area of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa was divided into several districts. Each district had an English collector as its head. The district was the main administrative unit in the plan. A Mofussil Diwani Adalat was established in each district to decide civil cases. The collector was the judge of this court. Provision was made for appeal to the Sadar Diwani Adalat at Calcutta. This court comprised Governor as its president and at least two members of the Council.

A Mofussil Foujdar(or Nizamat) Adalat was established in each district for the trial of crimes. This court was assisted by a Kazi or Mufti and two Maulvies. The collector had a general supervision over this court. Sadar Nizamat Adalat was established at Calcutta to hear appeals from the Faujdari Adalats. It was presided by an Indian Judge known as Daroga Adalat who was to be assisted by the chief Kazi, Chief Mufti and three Maulvies. The Sadar Nizamat Adalat was supervized by the Governor and the Council.

Warren Hatings appointed Sir Elijah Impey, the Chief Justice of Supreme Court, as the sole judge of the Sadar Diwani Adalat. Warren Hastings created a new department at Calcutta. Its head was called as the Remembrancer of Criminal Courts. His duty was to receive and analyse all the reports from the Mofussil Faujdari Adalats and prepare extracts from them.