Indian History

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Civil Disobedient Movement

In December 1929 the Lahore session of Indian National Congress passed a resolution of complete independence and declared that the ultimate goal of Congress is to achieve complete independence to India.

It declared to celebrate January 26, 1930 as independence day.

It ordered the Congress legislators to resign to the State Legislative Assemblies.

It appealed the people not to pay taxed to the Government.

The session was presided by Jawaharlal Nehru.

Mahatma Gandhi gave ultimatum to the Viceroy Irwin to accept demands but Viceroy ignored the ultimatum.

The historic Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Congress under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi on March 12, 1930.

In the North East Frontier Civil Disobedience Movement was led by Khan Abdul Gaffar Khan. He was called as "Frontier Gandhi".

He founded Khudai Kidmatgars Society.

Civil Disobedience Movement had three phases.

The first phase of Civil Disobedience Movement was from March 12, 1930 to January 3, 1932.

The first phase is also called as Salt Satyagraha Phase.

As the demands of Gandhi such as removal of Salt tax, reduction of land revenue etc., were totally ignored by the British, Gandhi decided to start Civil Disobedience Movement by violating Salt Laws.

To violate Salt Laws Gandhi decided to March from Sabarmathi Ashram to Dandi. Dandi is a coastal village in Gujarat 240 miles away from Sabarmathi Ashram.

Gandhi started Dandi March on March 12, 1930 with 78 followers and reached Dandi on April 5, 1930 and violated the salt laws.

Sarojini Naidu with 20,000 satyagrahis attacked Darshana Salt Depot near Surath.

The British Government convened the Round Table Conferences whild the Salt Satyagraha was going on.

Mahatma Gandhi was invted for talks by Viceroy Lord Irwin.

Gandhi-Irwin talks ended on March 5, 1931 concluding Gandhi-Irwin Pact.

As per the Pact Gandhi accepted to withdraw the Civil Disobedience Movement temporarily and agreed to attend the second round table conference in London.

People living in coastal areas were allowed to make salt for household purpose without paying any tax.

The Second Phase of Civil Disobedience Movement was from January 4, 1932 to July 11, 1933.

Mahatma Gandhi resumed the movement and appealed the entire nation to join in it.

To deal with the situation government promulgamated four ordinances.

Gandhiji and other leaders were arrested.

People intensified picketing, boycott, swadeshi and other activities.

The Third Phase of Civil Disobedience Movement was from July 12, 1933 to May 1934.

The Pune session of Indian National Congress resolved to withdraw collective Civil Disobedience Movement and decided to continue individual Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhiji and other leaders started individual satyagraha but they were detained by the government on August 1, 1933.

In May, 1934 the Patna session of Indian National Congress formally annouced the withdrawal of Civil Disobedience Movement.