Indian History

Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Mahajanapadas Buddhism Jainism Mauryan Empire Post Mauryan Age-Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Sangam Age Satavahanas Vakatakas Kadambas Badami Chalukyas Rashtrakutas Chola Empire Kalyani Chalukyas Pallava Kingdom Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Bhakti Movement Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Sur Dynasty-Shershah Gajapati Kingdom Eastern Ganga Dynasty Hoysalas Ahom Kingdom Kakatiyas Kalachuris Later Pandyas Maratha Kingdom Sikhs Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Advent of Europeans British Rule Constitutional Developments Education-Press Establishment of British le Governor Generals Moderates Popular Movements 1857 Revolt Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Nationalism Lord Canning

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Indus Valley Civilization Early Vedic Civilization Later Vedic Civilization Buddhism Jainism Persian-Greek Invasions Mauryan Empire Kushans Gupta Empire Harshavardhana Indian Culture Sangam Age Satavahanas Chola Empire Badami Chalukyas Pallavas Rashtrakutas Kalyani Chalukyas Rajputs Muslim Invasions Bahmani Empire Delhi Sultans Mughal Empire Hoysala Kingdom Independent Kingdoms Kakatiyas Kalachuri Kingdom Later Pandyas Marathas Vijayanagara Empire Yadavas Sur Dynasty-Shershah Sikhs Advent of Europeans Revolts Governor Generals British Rule Natonal Leaders Popular Movements Revolutionary Terrorism Rise of Natonalism Viceroys Education-Press Constitutional Developments --%>

Lord Ripon

Lord Ripon (1880-84):

Lord Ripon was appointed as viceroy of India in 1880.

He introduced a number of reforms for the welfare of people of India.

He enacted factories Act. As per this Act children having less the 12 years age were prohibited to work for more than 9 hours.

The vernacular press Act posted by Lord Litton in 1878 imposed several conditions on the news papers of regional languages Ripon repealed the vernacular press Act, in 1881.

As a result of which Indian press enjoyed freedom of expression.

Rippon introduced local self governments in India.

He was considered as father of local self Government in India.

A new regulation was passed in 1882.

As per this regulation village Panchayats were formed at village level.

District Boards, Taluq Boards and Municipalities also came into existence.

The function of local bodies were: Sanitation, roads, lights and education.

The Ilbert Bill introduced by the Ripon led to lot of controversy.

Hitherto, Indian Judges were not entitled to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved.

Ilbert, who was the law member of Ripon's viceroy council prepared a bill permitting Indian Judges to try the criminal cases in which Europeans were involved.

This bill intended to remove racial discrimination. But it led to lot of criticism. Consequently the bill was amended.

As per the amended bill Indian Judge can try European criminal case only with the assistance of Jury consisting more than half of the European members.

Hunter commission was appointed by Ripon to introduce reforms in Education.

Irrigational canals and railway lines were also built during his period.

Age limit for Indians to enter into civil service was 19. As per the aspirations of Indians Ripon recommended the government to increase the age limit to 21 years.

The government accepted it and increased the age limit to 21 years.